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Supported by the National Science Foundation's Basic Research to Enable Agricultural Development (BREAD) program

Above: Agroecological landscape, South Nandi Hills, Kenya. (photo: D. Guerena)
Further Reading and Selected References

Beck, D. P. (1991). "Suitability of charcoal-amended minerals soil as a carrier for rhizobium inoculants". Soil Biology & Biochemistry 23(1): 41-44.

Cayuela ML, Sánchez-Monedero MA, Roig A, Hanley K, Enders A and Lehmann J 2013 Biochar and denitrification in soils: when, how much and why does biochar reduce N2O emissions? Scientific Reports 3, 1732.

Chia CH, Munroe P, Joseph S, Lin Y, Lehmann J, Muller DA, Xin HL and Neves E 2012 Analytical electron microscopy of black carbon and microaggregated mineral matter in Amazonian Dark Earth. Journal of Microscopy 245, 129-139. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2818.2011.03553.x

Diblasi, C. (2008). "Modeling chemical and physical processes of wood and biomass pyrolysis." Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 34(1): 47-90.

Enders A, Hanley K, Whitman T, Joseph S, Lehmann J 2012 Characterization of biochars to evaluate recalcitrance and agronomic performance. Bioresource Technology 114, 644-653.

Joseph SD, Camps-Arbestain M, Lin Y, Munroe P, Chia CH, Hook J, van Zwieten L, Kimber S, Cowie A, Singh BP, Lehmann J, Foidl N, Smernik RJ, and Amonette JE 2010 An investigation into the reactions of biochar in soil. Australian Journal of Soil Research 48, 501–515

Book: Lehmann J and Joseph S 2009 Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology. Earthscan Ltd, London, UK, 404p

Lehmann, J. Rillig, M.C., Thies, J. Massielo, C.A. Hockaday, W.C. and D. Crowley. (in press). "Biochar effects on soil biota - a review." Soil Biology and Biochemistry 43, 1812–1836.

Major J, Rondon M, Molina D, Riha S and Lehmann J 2010 Maize yield and nutrition during 4 years after biochar application to a Colombian savanna oxisol. Plant and Soil 333, 117-128.

Stella, D. and P. Sivasakthivelan (2009). "Effect of Different Organic Amendments Addition into Azospirillum Bioinoculant with Lignite as Carrier Material." Botany Research International 2(4): 229-232.

Roberts K, Gloy B, Joseph S, Scott N and Lehmann J 2010 Life cycle assessment of biochar systems: Estimating the energetic, economic and climate change potential. Environmental Science and Technology 44, 827–833.

Torres-Rojas, D., J. Lehmann, et al. (2011). "Biomass availability, energy consumption and biochar production in rural households of Western Kenya." Biomass and Bioenergy.

Whitman, T., C. F. Nicholson, et al. (2011). "Climate change impact of biochar cook stoves in Western Kenyan farm households: system dynamics model analysis." Environmental Science & Technology 45(8): 3687-3694.

Woolf D and Lehmann J 2012 Modelling the long-term response to positive and negative priming of soil organic carbon by black carbon. Biogeochemistry 111, 83-95.

Woolf, D., J. E. Amonette, et al. (2010). "Sustainable biochar to mitigate global climate change." Nature Communications 1:56.

Zengeni, R., S. Mpepereki, et al. (2006). "Manure and soil properties affect survival and persistence of soyabean nodulating rhizobia in smallholder soils of Zimbabwe." Applied Soil Ecology 32(2): 232-242.