There is an increasing amount of digital data available on the Internet or as large datasets on CD-ROM, from straight digital conversions of paper maps and databases to direct-to-digital products. Ten years ago I described these trends and issues (Soil Use & Management 20: Digital soil resource inventories: status and prospects); I am here compiling the databases currently available, and have described these and the trends in a presentation at the 6th Global Workshop on Digital Soil Mapping in Nanjing, 11-14 November 2014; here is the preprint and here is the book chapter on-line at Springer Link.
This page attempts to link to all available primary soils information usable in a GIS either as "point" observations or polygon maps; many of the linked sites also have interpreted information. I only link to freely-downloadable geographic databases and map scans. No interactive web maps or "please write for pricing" databases, no on-line text reports. These can be valuable sources of information but can not be used directly in GIS.
I've explained some aspects of SGDB in the ISRIC Spring School 2015, you can watch the hour-long presentation here
ISRIC is the ICSU World Data Centre for Soils (WDC-Soils) since 1989. Its mission is to serve the international community with information about the world's soil resources to help addressing global issues. It provides soil data in various forms, all free and downloadable.
Arranged by scope (global, national, region and other), format (point/profile, polygon and raster/grid), and product (GLASOD, SOTER, WISE and others)
Aims: "Safeguard world soil data 'as is' (especially for soil legacy data); Share soil data (point, polygon, grid) upon their standardization and harmonization; Provide quality-assessed input for a growing range of environmental applications." This has a strong formal structure and programmable download (via REST), to facilitate data delivery over the web.
Links to global, national and FAO legacy maps (scans), also soil profiles and reports, soil degradation, management, biodiversity.
Primary and derived data covering Europe
Scans of legacy maps over the whole world, downloadable (and on CD-ROM) and with metadata. To be usable in GIS these must be georeferenced, the linework digitized, and a linked attribute database created.
Reference: Panagos, P., Jones, A., Bosco, C., Senthil Kumar P.S. European digital archive on soil maps (EuDASM): preserving important soil data for public free access. International Journal of Digital Earth (2011), 4 (5), pp. 434-443., DOI:10.1080/17538947.2011.596580
A very large catalog (over 1000 links) of soil parameters (e.g. C, CEC, heat budget, macrofauna...) with links to the actual data and metadata.
intended for global modelling of biogeochemistry
Collects datasets from World Data Centres and others. ISRIC is a contributor. Querying "soil map" returns about 4.6k hits.
A data broker to find datasets. Search terms include soil properties, soil moisture and temperature, soil chemistry, soil C. Can limit search by country/geography and data access conditions.
An up-to-date investigation of available soil geographic databases at this level is provided by an FAO report "State of the Art Report on Global and Regional Soil Information: Where are we? Where to go?", from the Global Soil Partnership.
"The present document represents an attempt to assemble relevant information on existing soil data at various scales throughout the world and on-going regional and global soil mapping initiatives. It aims at a) increasing users’ awareness on existing soil data and information, b) encouraging informed and accurate application of it, c) understanding user needs in terms of soil data and information and d) understanding demands on soil data and information under the challenges of food security and climate change."
Datasets at this scale are primarily intended for global modelling; as such the resolution is coarse and the properties are typically averaged.
From the FAO, this is the most general digital map of the World's soils, now using the international standard soil classification system World Reference Base for Soil Classification.
Available in many GIS formats, as a WMS layer, and as images.
"The Harmonized World Soil Database is a 30 arc-second raster database with over 15000 different soil mapping units that combines existing regional and national updates of soil information worldwide (SOTER, ESD, Soil Map of China, WISE) with the information contained within the 1:5 000 000 scale FAO-UNESCO Soil Map of the World (FAO, 1971--1981).
The resulting raster database consists of 21600 rows and 43200 columns, which are linked to harmonized soil property data. The use of a standardized structure allows for the linkage of the attribute data with the raster map to display or query the composition in terms of soil units and the characterization of selected soil parameters (organic Carbon, pH, water storage capacity, soil depth, cation exchange capacity of the soil and the clay fraction, total exchangeable nutrients, lime and gypsum contents, sodium exchange percentage, salinity, textural class and granulometry)."
An update of the venerable Fertility Capability Classification, now called Soil Functional Capacity Classification System. An interpretation of the HWSD (see above); "analyzes 13 key modifiers from FCC4 that are the most relevant to achieving the Millennium Development Goals".
Gridded maps at 30 arc-seconds of actual evapo-transpiration and soil water deficit: annual, monthly, Priestly-Taylor alpha; documentation. Primary inputs are WorldClim and Global-PET. Reference: Trabucco, A., and Zomer, R.J. 2010. Global Soil Water Balance Geospatial Database. CGIAR Consortium for Spatial Information. Published online, available from the CGIAR-CSI GeoPortal at: http://www.cgiar-csi.org
SoilGrids is a system for automated soil mapping based on global soil profile and environmental covariate data. SoilGrids represents a collection of updatable soil property and class maps of the world at 1 km and 250 m spatial resolution produced using automated soil mapping based on machine learning algorithms. It aims at becoming OpenStreetMap and/or OpenWeatherMap for soil data."
It is part of the Global Soil Information Facilities (GSIF) initiative: "ISRIC's framework for production of open soil data." It is well-described in an article in PLoS ONE: Hengl, T., J.M. de Jesus, R.A. MacMillan, N.H. Batjes, G.B.M. Heuvelink, E. Ribeiro, A. Samuel-Rosa, B. Kempen, J.G.B. Leenaars, M.G. Walsh, and M.R. Gonzalez. 2014. SoilGrids1km — Global Soil Information Based on Automated Mapping. PLoS ONE 9(8): e105992; DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0105992.
The SoilGrids layers are of limited thematic (relatively wide confidence limits) and spatial accuracy and still contain artifacts and missing pixels. In addition they are based on global models.
From the Land-Atmosphere Interaction Research Group of Beijing Normal University. Includes soil property grids and soil hydraulic and thermal parameters (NetCDF format) of the World, horizontal resolution 30 arc-seconds (about 1 km at the equator), over eight layers to 2.3 m depth, for land surface modeling.
From International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI); Michigan State University (MSU); HarvestChoice, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). A reclassification of SoilGrids based on the 27 HarvestChoice generic soil profiles for crop modelling using DSSAT or APSIM, presented on a 5 arc-minute grid.
"WISE3 holds selected attribute data for some 10,250 soil profiles, with some 47,800 horizons, from 149 countries. Individual profiles have been sampled, described, and analyzed according to methods and standards in use in the originating countries. [P]rofiles have been harmonized with respect to the original Legend (1974) and Revised Legend (1988) of FAO-Unesco ... the primary soil data and any secondary data derived from them can be linked using GIS to the spatial units of the 1:5M digitized Soil Map of the World as well as more recent digital Soil and Terrain (SOTER) databases through the soil legend code."
Reference: Batjes, N.H., 2009. Harmonized soil profile data for applications at global and continental scales: updates to the WISE database. Soil Use and Management 25, 124–127. doi:10.1111/j.1475-2743.2009.00202.x
"ISRIC - World Soil Information invites the world to join in rescuing, collating and harmonizing soil profile description and analytical data. We are promoting the creation of a single, comprehensive and accessible compilation of global soil information." Presently contains about 30k profiles from many soil survey institutions worldwide. Allows upload of user-collected profiles.r
Mostly USA, but includes analytical data for about 1,100 pedons from other countries. The above link describes the dataset; it can be downloaded from the NCSS Soil Characterization Database page.
27 soil profiles generated in formats compatible with the DSSAT and APSIM crop simulation models. Not a georeferenced set, modellers have to decide which of the generic profiles to use, based on soil maps or field survey. Developed by IFPRI, distributed by HarvestChoice.
Scanned maps, with metadata, from ISRIC's collection, processed by the European Soil Bureau. Uneven quality, uneven coverage, but a gold mine of historical maps. Separate DVD-ROM and online access for Africa, Asia, Canada, Caribbean Islands, Europe, Latin America, the USA. Reference Panagos, P., Jones, A., Bosco, C., Senthil Kumar P.S. European digital archive on soil maps (EuDASM): preserving important soil data for public free access. International Journal of Digital Earth(2011), 4 (5), pp. 434-443. DOI:10.1080/17538947.2011.596580
"[A]n archive and catalogue of all substantial soil surveys, reports and maps made overseas, with particular reference to those by British companies and personnel, to provide a safe repository for endangered copies, and to make the accrued information widely available for consultation by interested parties.". Materials are scanned as requested, and if scanned free for download. Excellent metadata and search interface; about 23k items catalogued.
"Soil moisture, which is the water stored in the upper soil layer, is a crucial parameter for a large number of applications, including numerical weather prediction, flood forecasting, agricultural drought assessment, water resources management, greenhouse gas accounting, civil protection, and epidemiological modeling of water borne diseases."
SOTER is a World Soils and Terrain Database (polyon maps, linked attribute tables) at scales from 1:5M down to 1:250k, depending on intensity of source data. This page links to continental, regional and country SOTER, as well as a procedures manual and data format description.
Regions included: Latin America & Caribbean, Southern Africa, Central Africa, Central Europe. See regions below for the available regional and country products.
This is intended as the entry point for all European data provided by governments, with compliant metadata
national datasets including Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Demark, England & Wales (but Scotland is listed under a region of the UK, see below), Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Malta, Netherlands, Norway and Slovakia. Format and coverage vary widely. A few are downloadable, usually as generalized maps.
sub-national (for now) regions such as Flanders (B), Wallonia (B), Bavaria, Niedersachsen, NRW, Saxen-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein (D), Rhône-Alpes (F), Abruzzo, Basilicata, Calabria, Emilia-Romagna, Friuli Venezia Giuliam Lombardy, Piemonte, Tuscany, Veneto (I), Galicia (E), and Scotland (UK)
Europe-wide soil profile databases, developed for various modelling projects (e.g. pesticide fate) SPADE-1 are direct measurements; SPADE-2 are inferred and harmonized for each Soil Typological Unit (STU) of the legend of the 1:1,000,000 Soil Geographic Database of Europe (SGDBE).
"The European Soil Bureau Network recommended and endorsed the preparation of a georeferenced soil database for Europe at scale 1:250,000. The Manual of Procedures Version 1.1 (Georeferenced Soil Database for Europe, EUR 18092) sets out the proposed methodology, the concepts, the structure and the implementation of the new soil database."
Currently available for A, CZ, D, I, GB-SCT
e-SOTER is a methodology for producing SOil and TERrain bases according to a procedures manual. The databases are ESRI shapefiles at a nominal 1:1M scale.
19,967 geo-referenced samples distributed in 25 countries; topsoils; analysed for the percentage of coarse fragments, particle size distribution (% clay,silt and sand content), pH (in CaCl2 and H2O), organic carbon (g/kg), carbonate content (g/kg), phosphorous content (mg/kg), total nitrogen content (g/kg), extractable potassium content (mg/kg) , cation exchange capacity (cmol(+)/kg) and multispectral properties.
SOTER for thirteen countries of Central & Eastern Europe, 1:2.5M
"Die Daten werden in 1 x 1km Rasterauflösung mit allen parametrisierten Auswertungen angeboten. Für jede Rasterzelle werden zusätzlich der Prozentanteil der Summe aller Bodenformen, sowie der Prozentanteil der Hauptbodenform mit dem größten Anteil angegeben."
All digital soil data for these countries, subject to signing a licensing agreement and (often) payment. Always licensed, never freely-usable
Unlike the country to the south, freely-downloadable and useable 1:250k, 1:25k, and points from the national soils inventoy on a 10 km grid, also topsoil Pb and Zn
"The ... project has gathered together existing information and data from previous soil survey work in Ireland and augmented it with a new field campaign, leading to the production of a new national soil map at a scale of 1:250,000... An extensive range of soil types (or 'series') have been identified ... each of them different in properties, with different environmental and agronomic responses. For each, the properties have been recorded in a database that can now be used to satisfy the information required both for soils management and effective policy implementation"
From the Land-Atmosphere Interaction Research Group of Beijing Normal University. Includes soil property grids (NetCDF format) of China, horizontal resolution 30 arc-seconds (about 1 km at the equator), over eight layers to 2.3 m depth, for land surface modeling, grids of soil hydraulic properties, soil particle-size distribution.
Hosted at IIASA. GIS coverages with linked database of soil types and properties. Many other coverages on the same CD-ROM.
250 m horizontal resolution; themes: Australian Soil Classification; clay percentage; bulk density, pH, plant available water
Digitized from 1:2'000,000 scale paper maps; includes a reliability map and legend
This is the Australian implementation of the GlobalSoilMap.net specification, i.e., at 3 arc-second (approx. 100 m) resolution. It is available for viewing on-line, via Google Earth, or for download. In addition to the soil properties it also provides many landscape attributes, e.g., the Prescott Index measure of water balance and solar radiation.
"This dataset comprises soil property mapping across the whole State of Victoria at 6 prescribed depths. The set depths are 0 to 5 cm, 5 to 15 cm, 15 to 30 cm, 30 to 60 cm, 60 to 100 cm and 100 to 200 cm. The mapped soil properties are pH (1:5 water), EC (dS/m), percent clay and soil organic carbon (SOC percent) ... The data is available in polygonal format (i.e., the land units) with soil property median value, standard deviation and assignment qualifier attributes."
"S-map is the new national soils database. When completed, it will provide a seamless digital soil map coverage for New Zealand. S-map is designed to be applied at any scale from farm to region to nation."
"The Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS) is developing continent-wide digital soil maps for sub-Saharan Africa using new types of soil analysis and statistical methods, and conducting agronomic field trials in selected sentinel sites. These efforts include the compilation and rescue of legacy soil profile data, new data collection and analysis, and system development for large-scale soil mapping using remote sensing imagery and crowdsourced ground observations"
e-SOTER is a methodology for producing SOil and TERrain bases according to a procedures manual. The database is an ESRI shapefiles at a nominal 1:1M scale.
SOTER for eight southern African countires, 1:2M.
SOTER for the DRC, Rwanda and Burundi, 1:2M (DRC), 1:1M (Rwanda and Burundi).
Version. 1.2 (November 2014) holds 18,532 unique soil profile records, inventoried from a wide variety of data sources (> 500), of which 17,160 records are georeferenced, including soil profile layer attribute data. Download includes georeferenced database, explanatory report, and KMZ file for visualization in Google Earth.
Includes Soil Landscapes of Canada (SLC) for the entire territory at 1:1'000 000 and detailed soil surveys (1:20 000 to 1:250 000) for most of the agricultural area.
To download digital SGDB for a user-defined area, click on the link "Order by...", and once the area is selected, specify SSURGO 2.2 (semi-detailed, source scale 1:12 000 to 1:25 000) and/or STATSGO2 (1:250 000, generalized from SSURGO).
To download digital SGDB for a State, click on the link "Order by...", and then "by State". Once the State is selected, scroll down and "Gridded Soil Survey Geographic (gSSURGO) by State". This includes the gSSURGO rasters (see below) but also a seamless polygon map of all the SSURGO 2.2 polygons, with attribute tables, in ESRI geodatabases format.
The same data for download as from the Geospatial Data Gateway; use the "Download Soils Data" tab. An advantage is the possibility to select an area of interest, which may cover several soil survey areas.
Another interface to SSURGO and STATSGO maps, from the California Soil Resource Lab. Uses either Google Maps or Google Earth. The latter is an incredible interface, showing polygons at appropriate display scale, click-through for map unit description with profile diagrams, block diagrams of typical landscape positions; also shows locations of typifying pedons. Also available as iPhone or Android apps.
Described in Geoderma 274:54, Chaney et al. "constructed using available high-resolution geospatial environmental data and a state-of-the-art machine learning algorithm (DSMART-HPC) to remap the Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database." Fills gaps, removes discontinuities at survey area edges, gives probabilities of each class.
A gridded version of SSURGO, which can be reclassified with properties or interpretations. No map unit disaggregation, but properties are estimated from map unit composition.
However, the entire continental USA has been disaggregated at 10 m horizontal resolution by Nathaniel Chaney at Princeton, in cooperation with the NRCS, using the DSMART approach developed by Odgers and colleagues in Sydney (Australia) -- see the paper. When this is made available on-line I will link to it.
"analytical data for more than 20,000 pedons of U. S. soils and about 1,100 pedons from other countries. Standard morphological pedon descriptions are available for about 15,000 of these pedons". The above link describes the dataset; it can be downloaded from the NCSS Soil Characterization Database page.
SOTER for Latin America & Caribbean, 1:5M.
From the (USA) National Water & Climate Center. Time-series of soil moisture, temperature, snowpack for scattered stations. Also has some records for Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands
Harmonized and quality-controlled. Mostly USA, a few in Alberta, Québec, Ontario and Sasketchewan
"Una iniciativa regional impulsada y financiada por la Alianza Mundial por el Suelo (FAO) e implementada en alianza estratégica con CIAT, EMBRAPA y 20 instituciones nacionales. Su objetivo es el esarrollo de un sistema moderno de información de suelos"
SOTER for Latin America & Caribbean, 1:5M.
Es una lástima que no hay como bajar las coordenadas ni los datos de perfiles. Solo se puede ver en linea y bajar PDFes con las descripcióes de perfiles.
"Data collected by Dr. James G. Bockheim and his colleagues from 1975 through 1987. Data include site information, air and soil temperature measurements, soil profile features, and surface boulder weathering features for 482 sites in the McMurdo Sound area of Antarctica."
dgr2 (at) cornell.eduLast modified: Wed Oct 26 13:31:38 EDT 2016